The U.S. has administered 13.7 million doses; Europe’s rollout begins.
Updated: 17 de enero de 2021 1:08 CE
The biggest vaccination campaign in history has begun. More than 39.7 million doses in 51 countries have been administered, according to data collected by Bloomberg. The latest rate was roughly 2.44 million doses a day, on average.
Vaccinations in the U.S. began Dec. 14 with health-care workers, and so far 13.7 million shots have been given, according to a state-by-state tally by Bloomberg and data from the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. In the last week, an average of 849,387 doses per day were administered.
Vaccines Across America
Across the U.S., 4.2 doses have been administered for every 100 people, and 44% of the shots distributed to states have been administeredDoses Administered% of Supply Used
VINote: Data gathered from government websites, official statements and Bloomberg interviews. Local governments and the CDC sometimes report different totals for the same jurisdiction; in these cases Bloomberg uses the higher number. It can take several days for counts to be reported to databases.
The U.S. rollout fell short of federal projections as vaccinations proceeded unevenly across the states. The initial round of shots through early January has been doled out primarily through hospitals and other institutional health-care settings. The next phase will draw more on pharmacies and health clinics—places where vaccines are more traditionally administered—and will broaden the pool of people eligible to get the shots. Some states are turning sport stadiums and theme parks into mass vaccination centers.
Uneven Progress Toward Herd Immunity
Doses administered per 100 people.
Note: Roughly 75% of people may need to be inoculated with the two-dose vaccine for a return to normal, according to estimates by top U.S. infectious disease doctor Anthony Fauci. Data from Bloomberg’s Covid-19 Vaccine Tracker
In an effort to speed up vaccinations after a rocky rollout, the U.S. government on Jan. 12 began encouraging states to start immunizing all residents 65 and older, along with those ages 16 and older with certain medical conditions. The directive would open vaccinations up to more than a third of the U.S. population—more than the current supply of vaccines could support.
Daily Vaccinations in the U.S.
An average of 849,387 shots were recorded each day for the last week
- Seven-day rolling average
Dec. 20Dec. 27Jan. 03Jan. 10Doses per day: 1.5M1.00.50.0Note: Data from Bloomberg’s Covid-19 Vaccine Tracker
The U.S. is managing state allocations of Pfizer and BioNTech’s vaccine, as well as Moderna’s shot and has said it will make more shots available in order to increase vaccinations. Both vaccines require two doses taken several weeks apart. At least 1.76 million people have completed the two-dose vaccination regimen.
U.S. Vaccine Campaign
|Jurisdiction||Doses distributed||Doses administered||% shots used|
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Note: Data gathered from government websites, official statements and Bloomberg interviews. Local governments and the CDC sometimes report different totals for the same jurisdiction; in these cases Bloomberg uses the higher number. It can take several days for counts to be reported to databases. “Doses distributed” have been recorded by the CDC as having shipped but may still be in transit; New York City’s doses are reported directly by the city only after they’ve been delivered.
Global Effort to Stop Covid
The Pfizer-BioNTech vaccine has now been cleared for use across North America, Europe and the Middle East, and vaccination campaigns have begun in at least 51 countries. That shot and the vaccine from Moderna were both found to reduce coronavirus infections by 95% in trials of tens of thousands of volunteers. A vaccine by AstraZeneca Plc and University of Oxford got its first major authorization, by the U.K., on Dec. 30.
Follow the Vaccines
- Read more: China is struggling to get the rest of the world to trust its vaccines
- Click here to find out when you can expect the next vaccines to be approved
- Read Bloomberg’s analysis of how countries are snapping up vaccine supply through more than 90 international vaccine deals
Other countries got a head start on vaccinations. China and Russia authorized their own shots in July and August, before they’d been fully tested. Since then, the countries have administered millions of doses, though they provide less frequent updates on their progress.
World Map of Vaccinations
More than 39.7 million doses have been administered in 51 countries.
Note: Data gathered from government websites, press conferences, public statements and Bloomberg interviews.
With the start of the global vaccination campaign, countries have experienced unequal access to vaccines and varying degrees of efficiency in getting shots into people’s arms. Israel’s rate of innoculations dwarfs the efforts of other nations, with 25.1 doses administered for every 100 people. Most countries haven’t yet given their first shots.
Delivering billions of vaccines to stop the spread of Covid-19 worldwide will be one of the greatest logistical challenges ever undertaken.
Race to End the Pandemic
Doses administered per 100 people.
Note: Two doses are needed for full protection with the vaccines currently in use. Data from Bloomberg’s Covid-19 Vaccine Tracker.
Global Vaccination Campaign
|Country||No. of doses administered||Per 100 people||Last updated|
|Saudi Arabia||178,337||0.52||Jan. 12|
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Note: Some countries may report national totals separately from their interior jurisdictions, so numbers for countries and their jurisdictions may not always match. Russia only reports the number of people who have received at least one dose; it doesn’t break down the total number of doses administered, which would be higher. Austria reports a calculated number of vaccinated persons based on the deliveries of doses to vaccination facilities.
The R&D Timeline
Bloomberg is tracking the development of nine of the globe’s most promising vaccines. A total of seven vaccines are now available for public use, in limited quantities, in dozens of countries.
Nations have poured billions of dollars into developing new vaccine technologies, testing them in thousands of volunteers, scaling up manufacturing, and then bringing them to market in record time.
None of these shots, on its own, is enough to inoculate a global population of some 7.8 billion people. But together they represent humanity’s best chance of ending a scourge that has claimed more than 1.9 million lives and triggered global economic calamity.
When to Expect the Next Vaccine
- Results expected
- Awaiting approval
- Available to public
- Trial size
- Doses required
- Storage temperature
44K 2−70ºC 95% Pfizer was the first company to report positive phase 3 clinical data.
It plans to produce 50M doses in 2020 and 1.3B in 2021.
30K 22–8ºC 95% Moderna and Pfizer both use a new vaccine approach involving messenger RNA. Moderna expects to have 20M doses for the U.S. in December and 100M globally in Q1.
45K 22–8ºC This small biotech firm has never brought a product to market. It received more than $1.6 billion from the U.S. and $399 million from the Coalition for Epidemic Preparedness. The stock rose 3,000% in nine months.
Johnson & Johnson
70K 12–8ºC Of the leading candidates, this is the easiest to distribute, requiring just one dose and standard refrigeration. To hedge its bets, J&J announced a separate trial with two doses in November. Russia and China took the unusual step of allowing vaccine distribution before conducting large-scale clinical trials.
26K 22–8ºC 78% Sinovac’s vaccine triggers an immune response using the Covid-19 virus itself, after it has been chemically inactivated.
40K 2−18ºC 91%A variation of the Russian vaccine, known as Sputnik V, can be stored using standard refrigeration temperatures of 2–8ºC. It’s currently available in limited quantities.
40K 12–8ºC CanSino’s shot was approved for the Chinese military even before late-stage tests began. It uses a harmless cold virus to deliver its genetic payload.
50K 22–8ºC 50% Sinopharm administered hundreds of thousands of doses before its vaccine was fully tested.
Note: Data are based on interviews, company disclosures, news reports and government data. In many countries, vaccines are first coming to market under emergency measures that let them bypass normal regulatory requirements. Because millions of people will get the vaccines under these rules, they are displayed as “available to the public.” Bloomberg will note when the regulatory status changes in the future.
Desperate for relief from the worst pandemic in a century, countries have struck deals to secure vaccine access. By our count, 8.33 billion doses have already been set aside.
That would be enough to cover more than half the world’s population (most vaccines use two doses), if the shots were distributed evenly. That, however, hasn’t happened. Rich countries have accumulated extensive supply deals, and ultra-cold storage requirements make some vaccines difficult to deliver to far-flung places. Some countries may have to wait until 2022 or later before supplies are widely available.
AstraZeneca’s two-dose shot is the early leader, with pre-purchase agreements that would cover 1.48 billion people—more than twice as many as any other candidate. In total, Bloomberg has identified more than 90 agreements.
Not every vaccine is certain to work. Bloomberg has removed from the tally 51 million doses reserved by Australia for a homegrown vaccine that failed in clinical trials on Dec. 10. A day later, Sanofi and GlaxoSmithKline Plc announced a delay in their clinical trials after suffering their own setback.
Strategies to secure vaccines varied widely. The U.S. struck unilateral deals for all of its supply. Dozens of countries will get vaccines through Covax, a consortium backed by the World Health Organization to ensure equitable vaccine distribution. An arrangement brokered by Mexican billionaire Carlos Slim will deliver cheap vaccines throughout most of Latin America.
Deals were included in Bloomberg’s analysis only if they had information on which company will make the vaccine, how many doses are covered, and which countries are likely to receive it. Billions of vaccines will likely be manufactured outside of such agreements. India, which has deals to manufacture 2.2 billion doses, plans to send vaccines to other countries in its region.
Shots Across the Globe
A global network of publicly disclosed vaccine deals
- Vaccine approved or on track to be approved
- Failed in trial
Note: When country contracts include a range of doses to be purchased, we count the lower number. On Dec. 23, Canada’s contracts were updated to reflect those details verified by the government.The Latin America bloc covers all countries in the region except Brazil. The European Union bloc represents the 27 countries of the European Union. The Covax agreement extends to most countries in the world, including many in Africa that wouldn’t otherwise be covered. Jurisdictions without a population figure, such as Somalia and Syria, have been omitted. The Middle East bloc covers U.A.E., Egypt, Bahrain and Jordan. Singapore says it has secured enough orders to vaccinate its population by the end of 2021, but hasn’t disclosed details of its agreements with drugmakers. Partnerships involving local manufacturers are listed under the original vaccine developer.
Coronavirus vaccines are coming to market at a record pace, shaving years off the typical development time. That speed has been financed in part by rich countries like the U.S., whose Operation Warp Speed program helped subsidize development and manufacturing of half a dozen novel vaccines.
Wealth has moved those countries to the front of the line. It’s also allowed some to hedge their bets by securing doses from a variety of manufacturers. Canada, with its population of 38 million, has contracts with at least seven companies to supply enough vaccines for 112 million people—and that doesn’t include vaccines it agreed to buy through the Covax consortium.
Russia and China aren’t striking the same sorts of deals. Instead, they’ll rely on domestically produced vaccines, such as the Sputnik V shots made by Moscow-based Gamaleya Center or those made by China’s state-owned pharmaceutical giant, Sinopharm. While China doesn’t disclose how many doses the government orders from local manufacturers, it’s assumed that those companies will provide as much as the population needs.
- The map below shows vaccine contracts around the world. Some countries have taken a different route by building up their own suppliers. Click here to see Bloomberg’s analysis of pandemic resilience, which includes China’s 1.4 billion doses of annual domestic production capacity. Adding that to foreign contracts is enough to cover 77% of China’s population in 2021.
World Map of Vaccine Contracts
Canada reserved more than three times what’s needed to inoculate its population.
Note: When country contracts include a range of doses to be purchased, we count the lower number. On Dec. 23, Canada’s contracts were updated to reflect those details verified by the government. Map only shows publicly disclosed allocations for countries with available population data. Some countries will produce vaccines domestically under terms that haven’t been disclosed. Calculations for population covered take into account the number of doses required by each vaccine.
|Country/Region||No. of people covered (thousands)||No. of people covered as % of population|
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